GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2

- Examples
- User documentation for MatrixView
- Maintainer documentation for MatrixView
- Bugs, Shortcomings and other ideas
- Main changes

A `MatrixView`

offers a means to **view** one or more
**existing objects** as though they were a `matrix`

:

- if you change the entries in the objects then the
`MatrixView`

changes; - if you change the entries in the
`MatrixView`

then the underlying objects change; - if you destroy or change the structure of the objects then the
`MatrixView`

may become invalid (and using it could lead to the dreaded**undefined behaviour**,*i.e.*probably a crash).

**NB** *Matrix views* do not make copies, so be careful with
temporaries! Look at these examples (`val`

is a `RingElem`

):

// OK const vector<RingElem> v(3, val); MatrixView MV = RowMat(v); // MV reads/writes in the vector v // NO this compiles, but the vector disappears after the ";"!! ConstMatrixView MVGhost = RowMat(vector<RingElem>(3, val)); // OK NewDenseMat makes a copy of the vector before it disappears matrix M = NewDenseMat(RowMat(vector<RingElem>(3, val)));

You can *view* a `std::vector<RingElem>`

, all of whose entries belong to the
same `ring`

, as a matrix in three ways:

`ColMat(v)`

-- view a`vector<RingElem>`

`v`

as a column matrix`RowMat(v)`

-- view a`vector<RingElem>`

`v`

as a row matrix`DiagMat(v)`

-- view a`vector<RingElem>`

`v`

as a diagonal matrix (NB: only the diagonal entries are*writable*)`MatByRows(r,c, v)`

-- view a`vector<RingElem>`

`v`

as an`r`

x`c`

matrix where the entries of`v`

are row 1, then row 2, and so on.`MatByCols(r,c, v)`

-- view a`vector<RingElem>`

`v`

as an`r`

x`c`

matrix where the entries of`v`

are col 1, then col 2, and so on.

`transpose(M)`

-- transposed*view*of the matrix`M`

`submat(M, rows, cols)`

-- submatrix*view*into`M`

; the rows and columns visible in the submatrix are those specified in the (`std::vector<long>`

) arguments`rows`

and`cols`

; repeated indices are not allowed.`RowMat(M, i)`

-- view the`i`

-th row of the matrix`M`

as a 1-by-c matrix`ColMat(M, j)`

-- view the`j`

-th col of the matrix`M`

as an r-by-1 matrix

The following pseudo-constructors assemble several matrices into a bigger one;
the argument matrices must all have the same `BaseRing`

. Be careful about
passing temporaries to these functions: they **only make references** to the
submatrices `A`

, `B`

etc

`ConcatVer(A, B)`

-- matrix*view*with the rows of`A`

above those of`B`

A |

B |

`ConcatHor(A, B)`

-- matrix*view*with the cols of`A`

before those of`B`

A | B |

`ConcatDiag(A,B)`

-- block diagonal matrix*view*

A | 0 |

0 | B |

`ConcatAntiDiag(A,B)`

-- block antidiagonal matrix*view*

0 | A |

B | 0 |

`BlockMat(A, B, C, D)`

-- block matrix*view*

A | B |

C | D |

**NB** in `BlockMat`

the boundaries of the four submatrices must be aligned; putting `zeroes`

in place of a matrix effectively creates a `ZeroMat`

of the correct size.

See `matrix`

operations, `matrix`

constructors and `MatrixOps`

Most of the implementations are quite straightforward; the tricky part was getting the design of the abstract classes right (well, I hope it is right now). Below are a few comments on some less obvious aspects of the implementations.

Note: it is a mathematical fact that the determinant of the 0x0 matrix is 1.

`ZeroMatImpl`

and `IdentityMatImpl`

are both derived from
`MatrixViewBase`

rather than `ConstMatrixViewBase`

as one might
naturally expect. The main reason for this is to simplify the
implementation of `BlockMat`

. I wanted to be lazy and
implement `ConcatDiag`

and `ConcatAntidiag`

using `BlockMat`

;
while this may not be the best implementation, it is a natural
approach and should certainly work as one might reasonably expect.
However, the pseudo-ctor `BlockMat`

has just two signatures: if any
one of the submatrices is *const* then whole result becomes *const*.
I didn't want to implement sixteen different signatures for
`BlockMat`

, and the easy way out seemed to be to make
`ZeroMatImpl`

and `IdentityMatImpl`

non-const. As a consequence
there are a number of *useless* member functions in `ZeroMatImpl`

and `IdentityMatImpl`

. I believe this compromise is reasonable. It
seemed reasonable to allow `ZeroMatImpl::myAssignZero`

to succeed.

There is a small problem with creating a matrix from an empty `std::vector`

because there is no indication of what the base ring should be. I have
chosen to throw an error if one tries to create a matrix view from an empty
vector (in `RowMat`

, `ColMat`

and `DiagMat`

).

The routines which access the `(i,j)`

entry in a `BlockMat`

are messy.
I could not see an elegant way to make them simpler (or to avoid repeating
similar structure in several places in the code). See Bugs about implementing
`BlockMat`

in terms of `ConcatVer`

and `ConcatHor`

.

There is an appalling amount of code duplication in the implementations.
I do not yet see a good way of reducing this. I hope someone will sooner
or later find an elegant way to avoid the duplication.
Maybe a *diagonal* abstract class for ZeroMatImpl,
IdentityMatImpl, DiagMatImpl, ConstDiagMatImpl?

It is a great nuisance to have to implement two very similar classes:
one for the *const* case, and the other for the *non-const* case.
Is there a better way?

Add `ColMat`

, `RowMat`

and `DiagMat`

for a free module element?

Should `submatrix`

allow repeated row/col indices? It could lead to
some some funny behaviour (e.g. setting one entry may change other
entries), so perhaps it would be better to forbid it? Currently, it
is forbidden.

The pseudo-ctor for `submatrix`

ought to accept begin/end iterators instead
of insisting that the caller put the indices in `std::vectors`

.

Should there be a more general version of `BlockMat`

which allows
non-aligned borders? `BlockMat`

could be eliminated and replaced by
suitable calls to `ConcatVer`

and `ConcatHor`

.

**Tensor product** of two matrices: we implement it as a DenseMatrix
instead of MatrixView because the latter would give no practical
advantage and hide the cost of accessing the entries.

**2016**

- Sept (v0.99544) added doc about
`zeroes`

in`BlockMat`

**2014**

- April (v0.99533)
- removed
`FilledMat`

- removed

**2011**

- February (v0.9943):
- optimized implementations for
`IsSymmetric`

,`IsAntiSymmetric`

,`IsDiagonal`

,`operator==`

- added
`FilledMat`

- optimized implementations for