GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2

- User documentation for the classes PPMonoid, PPMonoidElem and PPMonoidBase
- Library Contributor Documentation
- Maintainer documentation for PPMonoid, PPMonoidElem, and PPMonoidBase
- Bugs, Shortcomings and other ideas

The classes `PPMonoid`

and `PPMonoidElem`

are analogous to `ring`

and
`RingElem`

. A `PPMonoid`

represents a (multiplicative) power product
monoid with grading and compatible total arithmetic ordering; a
`PPMonoidElem`

represents an element of a `PPMonoid`

, *i.e.*
a power product.

`PPMonoid`

and `PPMonoidElem`

are used inside the implementation of
`SparsePolyRing`

(multivariate polynomial rings).

You do not have to deal directly with `PPMonoid`

unless you want to
work solely with power-products, or use some particular implementation
for a specific need in your `SparsePolyRing`

-- *e.g.* huge
exponents, very sparse power-products, fast ordering or fast access to
exponents.

The implementations of `PPMonoid`

s are optimized for different uses:

`PPMonoidEv`

: stores the*Exponent vector*; it is good for accessing the exponents, but slow for ordering; with optional 3rd arg`BigExps`

the exponents are stored as`BigInt`

's`PPMonoidOv`

: stores the*Order vector*; it is good for ordering, but slow for accessing the exponents; multiplication and comparison are fast; GCD/LCM are slow.`PPMonoidEvOv`

: stores the*Exponent vector*and the*Order vector*; it is good for accessing the exponents and for ordering but uses more memory and takes more time to assign.

Recall that every `PPMonoid`

is graded, and has a degree-compatible total
arithmetical ordering; the grading and ordering must be specified when the
`PPMonoid`

is created. For convenient input and output, also the names
of the indeterminates generating the monoid must be specified when the
monoid is created.

If you expect to use large exponents then you should use only the special
`PPMonoid`

created by `PPMonoidBigEv`

.
The other `PPMonoid`

s should usually be fine for exponents up to 1000 or
more; the true limit depends on the specific monoid, the number of
indeterminates, and the `PPOrdering`

. At the moment there is no way to
find out what the true limit is (see *Bugs* section), and no warning
is given should the limit be exceeded: you just get a wrong answer.

To create a `PPMonoid`

use the function `NewPPMonoid`

(the default
currently chooses `PPMonoidEv`

). To create a `PPMonoid`

object of
a specific type use one of the pseudo-constructors related to the
concrete monoid classes:

Given `PPO`

a `PPOrdering`

or `PPOrderingCtor`

(*i.e.* `lex`

, `StdDegLex`

, or `StdDegRevLex`

), and `IndetNames`

a `vector`

of `symbol`

`NewPPMonoid(IndetNames, PPO)`

-- same as`NewPPMonoidEv`

`NewPPMonoidEv(IndetNames, PPO)`

`NewPPMonoidEv(IndetNames, PPO, PPExpSize::big)`

--`PPExpSize::big`

is just an enum member.`NewPPMonoidOv(IndetNames, PPO)`

`NewPPMonoidEvOv(IndetNames, PPO)`

`cout << PPM`

-- print`PPM`

on`cout`

`NumIndets(PPM)`

-- number of indeterminates`ordering(PPM)`

-- the`PPOrdering`

inherent in`PPM`

`OrdMat(PPM)`

-- a matrix defining the ordering used in`PPM`

`GradingDim(PPM)`

-- the dimension of the grading (zero if ungraded)`GradingMat(PPM)`

-- the matrix defining the grading`symbols(PPM)`

--`std::vector`

of the`symbol`

s in`PPM`

(*i.e.*names of the indets in order:`k`

-th entry is`IndetSymbol(PP,k)`

)`IndetSymbol(PPM, k)`

-- the`symbol`

for the`k`

-th indeterminate`PPM1 == PPM2`

-- true iff`PPM1`

and`PPM2`

are identical (*i.e.*same addr)`PPM1 != PPM2`

-- true unless`PPM1`

and`PPM2`

are identical`IsPPMonoidOv(PPM)`

-- true iff`PPM`

is internally implemented as a`PPMonoidOv`

These pseudo-constructors are described in the section about `PPMonoidElem`

s

`one(PPM)`

`indet(PPM, k)`

`IndetPower(PPM, k, exp)`

`indets(PPM)`

See also some example programs in the `CoCoALib/examples/`

directory.

When a new object of type `PPMonoidElem`

is created the monoid to which it
belongs must be specified either explicitly as a constructor argument, or
implicitly as the monoid associated with some constructor argument. Once
the `PPMonoidElem`

object has been created it is not possible to make it
belong to any other monoid. Comparison and arithmetic between objects of
type `PPMonoidElem`

is permitted only if they belong to the same identical
monoid.

**Note**: when writing a function which has an argument of type `PPMonoidElem`

,
you should specify the argument type as `ConstRefPPMonoidElem`

, or
`RefPPMonoidElem`

if you want to modify its value.

Let `PPM`

be a `PPMonoid`

; for convenience, in comments we shall use x[i] to
refer to the i-th indeterminate in `PPM`

. Let `pp`

be a non-const
`PPMonoidElem`

, and `pp1`

and `pp2`

be `const PPMonoidElem`

(all belonging to `PPM`

).
Let `expv`

be a `vector<long>`

of size equal to the number of indeterminates.

`PPMonoidElem t(PPM)`

-- create new PP in`PPM`

, value is 1`PPMonoidElem t(PPM, expv)`

-- create new PP in`PPM`

, value is product x[i]^expv[i]`PPMonoidElem t(pp1)`

-- create a new copy of`pp1`

, belongs to same PPMonoid as`pp1`

`one(PPM)`

-- the 1 belonging to`PPM`

`indet(PPM, i)`

-- create a new copy of x[i] the i-th indeterminate of`PPM`

`IndetPower(PPM, i, n)`

-- create x[i]^n,`n`

-th power of`i`

-th indeterminate of`PPM`

`indets(PPM)`

--`std::vector`

(reference) whose n-th entry is n-th indet as a`PPMonoidElem`

`owner(pp1)`

-- returns the`PPMonoid`

to which`pp1`

belongs`IsOne(pp1)`

-- returns true iff`pp1`

= 1`IndetsIn(pp1)`

-- returns`vector<long> V`

such that`k`

is in`V`

iff the`k`

-th indet divides`pp1`

`IsIndet(i, pp1)`

-- returns true iff`pp1`

is an indet; if true, puts index of indet into`i`

`IsIndetPosPower(i, N, pp1)`

-- returns true iff`pp1`

is a positive power of some indet; when the result is true (signed long)`i`

and (`BigInt`

)`N`

are set so that`pp1 == IndetPower(owner(pp), i, N);`

(otherwise unchanged) if`pp1`

== 1 then the function throws`ERR::BadArg`

`IsIndetPosPower(i, n, pp1)`

-- same as above, where`n`

is long`cmp(pp1, pp2)`

-- compare`pp1`

with`pp2`

using inherent ordering; result is integer <0 if`pp1 < pp2`

, =0 if`pp1 == pp2`

, and >0 if`pp1 > pp2`

`pp1 == pp2`

-- the six standard comparison operators...`pp1 != pp2`

-- ...`pp1 < pp2`

-- ... (inequalities use the ordering inherent in`PPM`

)`pp1 <= pp2`

-- ...`pp1 > pp2`

-- ...`pp1 >= pp2`

-- ...`pp1 * pp2`

-- product of`pp1`

and`pp2`

`pp1 / pp2`

-- quotient of`pp1`

by`pp2`

, quotient**must**be exact (see the function`IsDivisible`

below)`colon(pp1, pp2)`

--*colon quotient*of`pp1`

by`pp2`

,*i.e.*`pp1/gcd(pp1,pp2)`

`gcd(pp1, pp2)`

-- gcd of`pp1`

and`pp2`

`lcm(pp1, pp2)`

-- lcm of`pp1`

and`pp2`

`radical(pp1)`

-- radical of`pp1`

`power(pp1, n)`

--`n`

-th power of`pp1`

(NB: you**cannot**use`pp1^n`

, see below)`PowerOverflowCheck(pp1, n)`

-- throws`ExpTooBig`

if overflow would occur computing`power(pp1,n)`

`IsCoprime(pp1, pp2)`

-- tests whether`pp1`

and`pp2`

are coprime`IsDivisible(pp1, pp2)`

-- tests whether`pp1`

is divisible by`pp2`

`IsSqFree(pp1)`

-- test whether`pp1`

is squarefree,*i.e.*if`pp1 == radical(pp1)`

`AssignOne(pp)`

-- sets`pp = 1`

`swap(pp, pp_other)`

-- swaps the values of`pp`

and`pp_other`

`pp = pp1`

-- assignment (`pp`

and`pp1`

must belong to same PPMonoid)`pp *= pp1`

-- same as`pp = pp * pp1`

`pp /= pp1`

-- same as`pp = pp / pp1`

`StdDeg(pp1)`

-- standard degree of`pp1`

; result is of type`long`

`wdeg(pp1)`

-- weighted degree of`pp1`

(using specified grading); result is of type`degree`

`CmpWDeg(pp1, pp2)`

-- result is integer <0 =0 >0 according as`wdeg(pp1)`

< = >`wdeg(pp2)`

; order on weighted degrees is lex, see`degree`

`CmpWDegPartial(pp1, pp2, i)`

-- result is integer <0 =0 >0 as`CmpWDeg`

wrt the first`i`

components of the weighted degree`exponent(pp1, i)`

-- exponent of x[i] in`pp1`

(result is a`long`

)`BigExponent(pp1, i)`

-- exponent of x[i] in`pp1`

(result is a`BigInt`

)`exponents(expv, pp)`

-- fills vector (of long)`expv`

so that`expv[i] = exponent(pp, i)`

for i=0,..,NumIndets(PPM)-1`BigExponents(expv, pp)`

-- fills vector (of BigInt)`expv`

so that`expv[i] = BigExponent(pp, i)`

for i=0,..,NumIndets(PPM)-1`cout << pp1`

-- print out the value of`pp1`

`IsFactorClosed(S)`

-- says whether the`std::vector<PPMonoidElem>`

S is factor closed; error if S is empty.

This section comprises two parts: the first is about creating a new type
of PP monoid; the second comments about calling the member functions of
`PPMonoidBase`

directly.

My first suggestion is to look at the code implementing `PPMonoidEv`

.
This is a simple PP monoid implementation: the values are represented as
C arrays of exponents. Initially you should ignore the class `CmpBase`

and those derived from it; they are simply to permit fast comparison of
PPs in certain special cases.

First, a note about "philosophy". As far as we can tell, the programming language C++ does not have a built-in type system sufficiently flexible (and efficient) for our needs, consequently we have to build our own type system on top of what C++ offers. The way we have chosen to do this is as follows (note that the overall scheme used here is similar to that used for rings and their elements).

To fit into CoCoALib your new class must be derived from `PPMonoidBase`

.
Remember that any operation on elements of your PP monoid will be effected
by calling a member function of your new monoid class.

The monoid must be a cartesian power of N, the natural numbers, with the
monoid operation (called "multiplication") being vector addition -- the
vector should be thought of as the vector of exponents in a power product.
The monoid must have a total arithmetic ordering; often this will be specified
when the monoid is created. The class `PPOrdering`

represents the possible
orderings.

Here is a summary of the member functions which must be implemented. All
the functions may be called for a **const** `PPMonoid`

, for brevity the `const`

qualifier is omitted. I use two abbreviations:

`RawPP` |
is short for `PPMonoidElemRawPtr` |

`ConstRawPP` |
is short for `PPMonoidElemConstRawPtr` |

**Note**: all arithmetic functions must tolerate argument aliasing (*i.e.* any
pair of arguments may be identical).

**Constructors**: these all allocate memory which must eventually be freed (by
calling `myDelete`

); the result is a pointer to the memory allocated.

`PPMonoidElemRawPtr PPMonoidBase::myNew()`

-- initialize pp to the identity`PPMonoidElemRawPtr PPMonoidBase::myNew(const vector<int>& expv)`

-- initialize pp from exponent vector`expv`

`PPMonoidElemRawPtr PPMonoidBase::myNew(const RawPP& pp1)`

-- initialize pp from`pp1`

**Destructor**: there is only one of these, its argument must be initialized

`void PPMonoidBase::myDelete(PPMonoidElemRawPtr pp)`

-- destroy`pp`

, frees memory

**Assignment** etc:

`void PPMonoidBase::mySwap(RawPP pp1, RawPP pp2)`

-- swap the values of`pp1`

and`pp2`

`void PPMonoidBase::myAssign(RawPP pp, ConstRawPP pp1)`

-- assign the value of`pp1`

to`pp`

`void PPMonoidBase::myAssign(RawPP pp, const vector<int>& expv)`

-- assign to`pp`

the PP with exponent vector`expv`

**Arithmetic**: in all cases the first arg is where the answer is placed,
aliasing is permitted (*i.e.* arguments need not be distinct);
`myDiv`

result is **undefined** if the quotient does not exist!

`const PPMonoidElem& myOne()`

-- reference to 1 in the monoid`void myMul(RawPP pp, ConstRawPP pp1, ConstRawPP pp2)`

-- effects pp = pp1*pp2`void myMulIndetPower(RawPtr pp, long i, unsigned long exp)`

-- effects pp *= indet(i)^exp`void myDiv(RawPP pp, ConstRawPP pp1, ConstRawPP pp2)`

-- effects pp = pp1/pp2 (if it exists)`void myColon(RawPP pp, ConstRawPP pp1, Const RawPP pp2)`

-- effects pp = pp1/gcd(pp1,pp2)`void myGcd(RawPP pp, ConstRawPP pp1, ConstRawPP pp2)`

-- effects pp = gcd(pp1, pp2)`void myLcm(RawPP pp, ConstRawPP pp1, ConstRawPP pp2)`

-- effects pp = lcm(pp1, pp2)`void myPower(RawPP pp, ConstRawPP pp1, int exp)`

-- effects pp = pp1^exp`void myPowerOverflowCheck(ConstRawPP pp1, int exp)`

-- throws`ExpTooBig`

if`myPower(pp,exp)`

would overflow exponent range

**Comparison and testing**:
each PP monoid has associated with it a **term ordering**, *i.e.* a total
ordering which respects the monoid operation (multiplication)

`bool myIsCoprime(ConstRawPP pp1, ConstRawPP pp2)`

-- true iff gcd(pp1, pp2) is 1`bool myIsDivisible(ConstRawPP t1, ConstRawPP t2)`

-- true iff t1 is divisible by t2`int myCmp(ConstRawPP t1, ConstRawPP t2)`

-- result is <0, =0, >0 according as t1 <,=,> t2- NYI
`int myHomogCmp(ConstRawPP t1, ConstRawPP t2)`

-- as cmp, but assumes t1 and t2 have the same degree

Sundries:

`degree myDeg(ConstRawPP t)`

-- total degree`long myExponent(ConstRawPtr rawpp, long i)`

-- exponent of i-th indet in pp`void myBigExponent(BigInt& EXP, ConstRawPtr rawpp, long i)`

-- EXP = degree of i-th indet in pp`void myExponents(vector<long>& expv, ConstRawPP t)`

-- get exponents, put them in expv`void myBigExponents(vector<BigInt>& expv, ConstRawPP t)`

-- get exponents, put them in expv`ostream& myOutput(ostream& out, const RawPP& t)`

-- prints t on out; default defn in PPMonoid.C

Query functions:

`long myNumIndets()`

-- number of indeterminates generating the monoid`const symbol& myIndetName(long var)`

-- name of indet with index var

You will have to edit `PPMonoid.H`

and possibly `PPMonoid.C`

(*e.g.* if there is
to be a default definition). Arguments representing PPs should be of type
`RawPP`

if they may be modified, or of type `ConstRawPP`

if they are read-only.
See also the Coding Conventions about names of member functions.

If you do add a new pure virtual member function, you will have to add definitions to all the existing concrete PP monoid classes (otherwise they will become uninstantiable). Don't forget to update the documentation too!

Values of type `PPMonoidElem`

are intended to be simple and safe to use
but with some performance penalty. There is also a "fast, ugly, unsafe"
option which we shall describe here.

The most important fact to heed is that a `PPMonoidElemRawPtr`

value is **not**
a C++ object -- it does not generally know enough about itself even to
destroy itself. This places a considerable responsibility on the
programmer, and probably makes it difficult to write exception clean code.
You really must view the performance issue as paramount if you plan to use
raw PPs! In any case the gain in speed will likely be only slight.

The model for creation/destruction and use of raw PPs is as follows:
(NB see *Bugs* section about exception-safety)
- (1) an uninitialized raw PP is acquired from the system;
- (2) the raw PP is initialized by calling an initialization function (typically called `myNew`

) -- this will generally acquire further resources;
- (3) now the RawPP may be used for i/o, arithmetic, and so forth;
- (4) finally, when the value is no longer required the extra resources
acquired during initialization should be released by calling the `myDelete`

function -- failure to call `myDelete`

will probably result in a memory leak.

Here is some pseudo C++ code to give an idea

const PPMonoid& M = ...; // A PPMonoid from somewhere PPMonoidElemRawPtr t; // A wrapped opaque pointer; initially points into hyperspace. t = M->myNew(); // Allocate resources for a new PP belonging to M; // there are two other myNew functions. .... operations on t; always via a member function of the monoid M ... M->myDelete(t); // "destroy" the value t held; t points into hyperspace again.

NOTE: the only functions which take a pointer into hyperspace are `PPMonoidBase::myNew`

;
many functions, *e.g.* `PPMonoidBase::myMul`

, write their result into the first argument
and require that that first argument be already allocated/initialized.

NOTE: if an exception is thrown after `M->myNew`

and before `M->myDelete`

then
there will be a memory leak (unless you correctly add a `try...catch`

block).
If `t`

is just to hold a temporary local
value then it is better to create a full `PPMonoidElem`

and then let `t`

be its `RawPtr`

; this should avoid memory leaks.

See subsection below about thread-safety in `PPMonoidOV`

.

The general structure here mirrors that of rings and their elements, so you may find it helpful to read ring.txt if the following seems too opaque. At first sight the design may seem complex (because it comprises several classes), but there's no need to be afraid.

The class `PPMonoid`

is a reference counting smart pointer to an object
derived from `PPMonoidBase`

. This means that making copies of a
`PPMonoid`

is very cheap, and that it is easy to tell if two `PPMonoid`

s
are identical. Assignment of `PPMonoid`

s is disabled because I am not
sure whether it is useful/meaningful. `operator->`

allows member
functions of `PPMonoidBase`

to be called using a simple syntax.

The class `PPMonoidBase`

is what specifies the class interface for each
concrete PP monoid implementation, i.e. the operations that it must offer.
It includes an intrusive reference count for compatibility with
`PPMonoid`

. Since it is inconceivable to have a PP monoid without an
ordering, there is a data member for memorizing the inherent `PPOrdering`

.
This data member is `protected`

so that it is accessible only to friends
and derived classes.

The function `PPMonoidBase::myOutput`

for printing PPs has a reasonable
default definition.

The situation for elements of a PP monoid could easily appear horrendously
complicated. The basic idea is that a PP monoid element comprises two
components: one indicating the `PPMonoid`

to which the value belongs, and
the other indicating the actual value. This allows the user to employ a
notationally convenient syntax for many operations -- the emphasis is on
notational convenience rather than ultimate run-time efficiency.

For an element of a PP monoid, the owning `PPMonoid`

is specified during
creation and remains fixed throughout the life of the object; in contrast
the value may be varied (if C++ const rules permit). The value is
indicated by an opaque pointer (essentially a wrapped `void*`

): only the
owning `PPMonoid`

knows how to interpret the data pointed to, and so all
operations on the value are effected by member functions of the owning
`PPMonoid`

.

I do not like the idea of having naked `void*`

values in programs: it is
too easy to get confused about what is pointing to what. Since the
value part of a `PPMonoidElem`

is an opaque pointer (morally a `void*`

),
I chose to wrap it in a lightweight class; actually there are two classes
depending on whether the pointed to value is `const`

or not. These
classes are `PPMonoidElemRawPtr`

and `PPMonoidElemConstRawPtr`

; they
are opaque pointers pointing to a value belonging to some concrete PP
monoid (someone else must keep track of precisely which PP monoid is the
owner).

The constructors for `PPMonoidElemRawPtr`

and `PPMonoidElemConstRawPtr`

are `explicit`

to avoid potentially risky automatic conversion of any
old pointer into one of these types. The naked pointer may be accessed
via the member functions `myRawPtr`

. Only implementors of new PP
monoid classes are likely to find these two opaque pointer classes useful.

I now return to the classes for representing fully qualified PPs.
There are three very similar yet distinct classes for elements of PP
monoids; the distinction is to keep track of constness and ownership.
I have used inheritance to allow natural automatic conversion among
these three classes (analogously to `RingElem`

, `ConstRefRingElem`

)

- A
`PPMonoidElem`

is the owner of its value; the value will be deleted when the object ceases to exist. - A
`RefPPMonoidElem`

is not the owner of its value, but the value may be changed (and the owner of the value will see the change too). - A
`ConstRefPPMonoidElem`

is not the owner of its value, and its value may not be changed (through this reference).

The data layout is determined in `ConstRefPPMonoidElem`

, and the more
permissive classes inherit the data members. I have deliberately used a
non-constant `PPMonoidElemRawPtr`

for the value pointer as it is easier for
the class `ConstRefPPMonoidElem`

to add in constness appropriately than it
is for the other two classes to remove it. The four assignment operators
must all be defined since C++ does not allow polymorphism in the destination
object (e.g. because of potential problems with slicing). Ideally it would
be enough to define assignment just from a `ConstRefPPMonoidElem`

, but I
have to define also the "homogeneous" assignment operator since the default
definition would not work properly. It is a bit tedious to have four copies
of the relevant code (but it is only a handful of lines each time).

By convention the member functions of `PPMonoidBase`

which operate on
raw PP values assume that the values are valid (e.g. belong to the same
PP monoid, division is exact in `myDiv`

). The validity of the arguments
is checked by the syntactically nice equivalent operations (see the code
in PPMonoid.C). This permits a programmer to choose between safe clean
code (with nice syntax) or faster unsafe code (albeit with uglier syntax).

The impl in `PPMonoidOV`

using the CPP flag `CoCoA_THREADSAFETY_HACK`

to select between two impl strategies. If the CPP flag is not set, then
"single-threaded" code is compiled which uses some "global" buffers to
gain speed; if the flag is set then buffers are allocated locally in
several functions.

The section on "Advanced Use" is a bit out of date and too long.

- (1) Should more operations on
`PPMonoidElem`

s be inlined? With the current design, since speed is not so important for`PPMonoidElem`

s. - (2) We would like a way of performing divisibility tests faster when there are few indeterminates and relatively high degrees. In this case the DivMask is useless. The "gonnet" example is slow because it entails many divisibility tests. One suggestion would be to maintain a "randomly weighted" degree and use that as a simple heuristic for deciding quickly some cases.
- (3) I've fixed the various arithmetic functions for
`PPMonoidElem`

s so that they are obviously exception safe, BUT they now make an extra copy of the computed value (as it is returned from a local variable to the caller). Here is an idea for avoiding that extra copy. Create a new type (say PPMonoidElem_local) which offers just raw(..) and a function export(..) which allows the return mechanism to create a full`PPMonoidElem`

(just by copying pointers) and empty out the PPMonoidElem_local. If the PPMonoidElem_local is not empty then it can destroy the value held within it. By not attempting to make PPMonoidElem_locals behave like full PPMonoidElems I save a lot of "useless" function definitions. Indeed the "export" function need not exist: an implicit ctor for a PPMonoidElem from a PPMonoidElem_local could do all the work. I'll wait to see profiling information before considering implementing. - (4) Is assignment for
`PPMonoid`

s likely to be useful to anyone? I prefer to forbid it, as I suspect a program needing to use it is really suffering from poor design... - (5) I have chosen not to use
`operator^`

for computing powers because of a significant risk of misunderstanding between programmer and compiler. The syntax/grammar of C++ cannot be changed, and`operator^`

binds less tightly than (binary)`operator*`

, so any expression of the form`a*b^c`

will be parsed as`(a*b)^c`

; this is almost certainly not what the programmer intended. To avoid such problems of misunderstanding I have preferred not to define`operator^`

; it seems too dangerous. - (6) The absence of a
`deg`

function for`PPMonoidElem`

s is deliberate; you should choose either`StdDeg`

or`wdeg`

according to the type of degree you want to compute. This is unnatural; is it a bug? - (7) I have deliberately not made the destructors for
`ConstRefPPMonoidElem`

and its descendants virtual. This is marginally risky: it might be possible to leak memory if you convert a raw pointer to`PPMonoidElem`

into a raw pointer to`ConstRefPPMonoidElem`

; of course, if you do this you're asking for trouble anyway. - (8) Should
`exponents`

give an error if the values exceed the limits for`long`

? - (9) Offer the user some means of checking for and handling exponent overflow.